增进英文写作能力(1)--笔记法

转载自《升学情报 19》,2004年
文|张启扬
~ 毕业于美国威斯康辛大学,后创办立肯语言学院;华校出身的他在积极钻研下,经已成为国内家喻户晓的英语教学专家。

“笔记法”就是在日常的学习生活中,坚持用英文做笔记,训练自己的英文写作能力,以及克服书写障碍的方法。“笔记法”的内容很广泛,凡是你认为有价值的东 西,都可以随手用英文记录下来。“笔记法”的主要功能不仅是帮你记住某件事情,还使得你的英文写作能力及英文书写的正确性就如春天的小草一样,不见其长而 日有所增,在不知不觉中有了长进和提高。

在此向同学介绍五种“笔记法”:

1.单词故事记

针对同们学单词拼写不准确的问题,我们提倡一种既能复习单词,又能提高写作能力的好办法:把一连串的单词串起来,编成一个完整的小故事。举一个例子说明∶
单词表
be busy doing/loaf/grain/wine/fork/steel/flour/farming/develop/experience/keep/seed-head/knock out of/condition/rough/point out/weed/turn over/gardening/go against/plough/year after year/agree to do sth./now and then/give a talk
这么多的单词和词组要是死记硬背的话,恐怕不容易。所以,我们就来编一个有趣的小故事。单词表中的单词和词组都要用上,如果碰到实在没有学过的生词,你可以用汉语来代替。

The hostess is busy doing her housework, she doesn’t know there is a meeting in her kitchen. A loaf of bread and a bottle of wine are talking about their parents, the steel fork is listening. The bread said, “My mother is flour, I am made from her.” The wine said, “My mother is grape, she grows in a grape garden.” The flour hears their words and she doesn’t agree to be the bread’s mother. She says that her mother is wheat and grain which are growing in a farm land. People with great experience have developed some new skills of farming, now and then they are keeping good seed-heads in a good condition, out of which they can knock the seeds. Although the land is rough and there are some weeds growing with the wheat and grain, the farmers are turning over and plough the land year after year. The wine pointed out, “Don’t forget my parents, farmers also do some gardening now and then, so they may have a bigger harvest of grapes.” When the steel fork wants to give a talk, the door opens. The hostess come in, she may go against everyone’s opinion, they’d better keep silent.

厨房会议结束了,该记的单词和词组也都用上了。这样的单词记忆法是不是很有意思?不但把单词记住了,也训练了写作想像力。

2.课文改写

课文是最容易获得且有价值的训练材料,课文改写可以包括课文概叙、缩写、续写、转换人称叙述等等。我们可以针对课文的一段内容或整篇课文提出一些概 括性、启发性及评价性问题,然后把这些问题的答案通过整理串成课文的梗概;这时,我们就要对原文素材有所取舍,重新组织。这种改写,一方面有内容可写;另 一方面又不能照抄原文,而要根据自己的思维,进行再创作。我们来举个例子∶
Albert Einstein was born in Germany on March 14th, 1879. When he was a young boy he used to ask a lot of questions, for example, “How does darkness happen?” By the time he was fourteen years old, he had learned maths all by himself. He was a shy person and did not enjoy school very much. He found it hard to get along with the other boys. All through his life Einstein was content to spend most of his time alone, although he married twice and had lots of close friends.
From the age of seventeen, Einstein studied in Switzerland. To earn enough money to continue his studies, he worked hard there first as a teacher, then in a government office. With the pay that he received and saved, he went on with his studies at university, where he received a doctor’s degree in 1905. The period between 1905 and 1915 was an important one for Einstein; he began the research and studies which led to his new discoveries in physics.

对于课文中的这一段话,我们可以提出以下的问题:1. When and where was Albert Einstein born?2. What kind of person he was?3. Why did he go to Switzerland at the age of seventeen?4. When did he receive his doctor’s degree?5. Why was the period between 1905 and 1915 an important one for Einstein?

这些问题的答案就形成了我们改写的基本内容∶
Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879. He was a shy person and didn’t like to be with many people. At the age of seventeen, he went to Switzerland to study in a university there. He received his doctor’s degree in 1905. The period between 1905 and 1915 was an important one for Einstein because it was at that period of time that he made his great discovery.

3.阅读笔记

世界着名的美国外语教学理论家Stephen Krashen在其1993年出版的教学理论力作《Power od Reading:Insight From tha Research》中指出,外语书读得多的人,其读写能力比读书量少的人强。第二语言的阅读量和语言的习得之间有肯定的关系。研究表明,正确指导学生阅读 是解决词汇问题和迅速提高第二语言能力的有效方法。读书和写作就好比输入和输出,没有足够的输入和吸收是不可能有大量输出的。
因此,我们必须扩展个人的知识面,多看一些英文的资料。阅读之后,要作阅读笔记,否则所学到的新知识很快就忘光了。阅读笔记没有什么特别要求,你可以摘录地道的英语,也可以写读后感,或者缩写原文等等。总之,依据自己的爱好以及所读文章的内容,多尝试几种不同的体裁。

4.生活中的小事随手记

美国语言学家克拉申(Stephen D Krashen)将人们所说的“学习”概念分为两个部分,即“习得”(acquisition)和“学得”(learning)。“习得”是下意识地、非 正式地、自然地学习语言;而“学得”是有意识地、正式地、明确地学习语言的规则,即“语法”。在正常情况下学生只有靠“习得”才能培养语感,才能用流利的 “目标语”(target language)进行交际,而写作能力的真正形成则须建立在能用目标语进行交际的基础上。因此,我们必须加强自己平时的练习,把自己想到的计划、安排随 手用英语写下来,举个例子∶

假如你星期六一早起来,准备到超市购物,平时,你都习惯先在一张纸上写下购物清单,你不妨一如既往来做这个清单,只不过这个清单再不用华文来写,而是用英文。

不用担心你的笔记中出现华文,如果你有时间,就查查字典,或问问老师,算是学习新单词。如果你没有时间,也不要紧,本来你就不认识这些单词。但是有一项原则非常重要,就是对你已经学过的单词,必须确认其拼写,稍有疑问,一定要查字典核实。

5.延续性写作
我们除了平时的作文练习之外,基础比较好的同学还可以尝试写一写大题目,如My School Life、My Hometown等(以记叙文为主),每天课余写一小节内容,就像电视连续剧那样,续写不断。并在规定的时间内如( 一个月,甚至一个学期)完成,最后大家一起进行评选,看谁的习作最多,最有新意,最引人入胜。

我曾经教过一个学生,他的英语很好,而且电脑也玩得不错。他自己决定在周记里用英语写一个连续性的科幻小说。由于他是主动地去写,所以每次都很认 真。碰到生词,他不愿意打断自己的思路,就用华文来代替。一学期下来,写的还真不少。暑假过后,我听说他将自己写的这部小说投到某游戏网站,竟然被录用, 还得了奖。

我的意思并不是鼓励大家都去写小说,只是认为有时候写连续的东西能更好地发挥自己的主动性,写完之后,也更有成就感,可以增强自信心。只要把“用英语写笔记”当作一种生活习惯,坚持不懈,就会“谈笑间,强虏灰飞烟灭”,书写的障碍在不知不觉之中就会烟消云散、无影无踪。

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